Biotechnology is the application of scientific knowledge to the field of biology. It involves the use of living organisms, cell cultures, and biomolecular methods to develop and produce pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals and other products. The first use of biotechnology was in brewing beer in ancient Egypt around 5000 B.C., but it wasn't until the mid-20th century that scientists began to realize that biotechnology could be used for other purposes as well. Since then, new developments in this field have taken place all over the world at an ever-increasing rate. This chapter provides an overview of this new and rapidly evolving field by describing its current status internationally; presenting information about trends in worldwide research and development for selected products; and outlining a number of future possibilities for this exciting area of science that has generated such great interest among both scientists and nonscientists alike."
Biotechnology is a field of study that deals with the use of living organisms and bioprocesses in engineering, technology, medicine and other fields. The term is sometimes extended to include genetic engineering, but this more properly falls under the broader category of biotechnology. Biotechnologies are the technologies used in agriculture and food production, industry, health care and education. They also serve as basic research tools in molecular biology; they provide new materials through genetic manipulation; they help solve some waste disposal problems; they may be used to create energy sources; they offer ways to prevent or cure human disease by understanding how cells work on a molecular level (molecular biology); they aid researchers who study cellular processes (cell biology).
Biotechnology has been defined as "the application of biological systems within engineering practice," although this definition does not yet include genetic engineering.
Biotechnology is a broad field that encompasses many different technologies. Biotechnology is used in many industries, including agriculture, food, energy and medicine. Biotechnology helps create new products and processes to improve existing ones.
Biotechnology is a branch of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses for industrial, medical, and other purposes. It can be seen as using parts from one organism to create another organism in order to serve human needs. Biotechnology includes genetic engineering (GE), which entails transferring genes from one species into another; cell therapy, which involves extracting cells from donors and injecting them into patients with diseases like cancer or AIDS; stem cell research; tissue engineering; synthetic biology (SB); and gene editing (GE).
The top four countries in the world conducting research on biotechnology are the United States, China, Japan and Germany. The United States leads in terms of patents granted per year on average between 2004-2018 while Japan had more than 2 million articles published related directly or indirectly to biotechnology annually during this same time period
Biotechnology is an international phenomenon which has been studied extensively around the world. Biotechnology is defined as the use of living organisms and their products to make or modify products, provide services, solve problems and develop new materials.
Biotechnology has become an important part of modern life because it provides solutions to many problems in medicine, agriculture and industry. In addition, biotechnology helps improve our quality of life by enabling scientists to produce new drugs for curing diseases such as cancer and AIDS.
Biotechnology was originally developed in the United States during World War II when scientists at Harvard University were asked to find alternative sources of rubber needed for military operations in Southeast Asia. The researchers came up with a process that uses bacteria found on trees called "microorganisms" (tiny organisms), which could convert waste from cows into milk proteins called casein that could be used as rubber substitutes for tires on trucks carrying supplies over rough terrain during wartime conditions without getting damaged easily like regular tires would do under similar conditions!
The Japanese government has been a key player in supporting biotechnology research, with the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) setting up an administrative management system to facilitate R&D activities and create new markets. The current administration has continued this momentum and recently announced plans to invest JPY 2 trillion over the next four years into promoting and expanding Japan's biotechnology industry. In addition, it has established the Industrial Competitiveness Council for Biotechnology within the MHLW—the first such council ever created—to help guide policymaking in this area.
Japan's commitment to developing its domestic biotechnology industry has also been demonstrated through efforts by private companies like Mitsui & Co., which have invested heavily in their own research labs since 2017. These investments are expected to accelerate as part of a broader strategy by Mitsui Chemicals Inc., one of Japan's largest chemical manufacturers, to strengthen its position globally by offering more specialized products made from renewable resources like plants or microorganisms instead of fossil fuels.
Biotechnology is a major economic force, with the potential to generate significant revenue and create jobs. The global market for biotechnology products and services has been growing steadily over the past decade and is expected to continue to grow through 2020. In 2015 alone, it was valued at USD$102 billion by industry experts. This type of growth has led analysts to predict that by 2022 the value of this market will reach an estimated USD$152 billion—a jump of almost 30%. The U.S., China, Japan and Germany currently account for about half of all biotechnology spending worldwide; however, emerging markets such as India are quickly catching up with their own investments in R&D efforts related specifically towards developing new therapies or cures for diseases like cancer that would otherwise be fatal without treatment options available today due only thanks
The European Union (EU) is the biggest biotechnology market in the world. It's also a big investor in biotechnology research and development. The EU is home to more than 3000 biotech companies, with a total of 60,000 employees. Europe currently accounts for 66% of global research and development spending on biotechnology products (including diagnostics). Europe was also responsible for 40% of all world-wide patents granted between 2000–2009; nearly twice as many as any other region.
Japan is a world leader in biotechnology, with a strong research base and a large number of academic and industrial researchers. Japan has been investing heavily in biotechnology over the last decade, particularly in drug development. The market for medicines and medical devices based on biotechnologies is expected to grow significantly over the next decade as more people live longer lives due to advances in healthcare technology.
Japan's own companies are also exporting their products overseas as part of their international expansion plans.
Biotechnology is a global industry, and the research, development and commercialization of new biotechnologies are being conducted on every continent. The US, Japan and Europe lead in terms of number of companies involved in biotechnology R&D, but Asia is quickly catching up. Investments in biotech research have been growing rapidly over time -- it’s one of the fastest-growing industries in the world!
The field of biotechnology is rapidly evolving. The latest developments have been summarized in this chapter, and the information presented here will provide a solid understanding of what makes biotechnology unique, where it came from, and where it might go in the future.